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Prevention of atherosclerotic ischaemic heart disease and stroke


Prevention of atherosclerotic ischaemic heart disease and stroke
Prevention of atherosclerotic ischaemic heart disease and stroke
Prevention of atherosclerotic ischaemic heart disease and stroke

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention is a coordinated set of actions, at the population level or targeted at an individual at risk of developing cardiovascular disease, that are aimed at eliminating or minimizing the impact of CVDs and their related disabilities.

Sign and Symptoms

Diagnostic Criteria

Major risk factors for ischemic cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease are:

• Diabetes mellitus
• Hypertension
• Central obesity: waist circumference ≥ 94 cm (men) and ≥ 80 cm (women)
• Dyslipidemia (fasting levels): Total cholesterol > 5 mmol/L, or LDL> 3 mmol/L, or HDL< 1 mmol/L in men and < 1.2 mmol/L in women
• Smoking
• Age: Men > 50 years, Women > 60 years
• Family history of early onset cardiovascular disease; Male relatives < 55 years and Female relatives < 65 year

Estimation of total cardiovascular risk is important for prevention of CVD in an individual, should be adapted to his or her total CV risk: the higher the risk, the more intense the management should be.

For Cardiovascular Disease Risk Classification

Very High Risk

Subjects with any of the following:

Documented CVD, clinical or unequivocal on imaging: Documented clinical CVD includes previous AMI, ACS, coronary revascularization and other arterial revascularization procedures, stroke and TIA, aortic aneurysm and PAD.

Unequivocally documented CVD on imaging includes plaque on coronary angiography or carotid ultrasound. It does NOT include some increase in continuous imaging parameters such as intima–media thickness of the carotid artery.

DM with target organ damage such as proteinuria or with a major risk factor such as smoking or marked hypercholesterolaemia or marked hypertension.

• Severe CKD (GFR <30 mL/min/1.73 m²).
• A calculated CVD Risk Score ≥10%.

High Risk

Subjects with:

• Markedly elevated single risk factors, in cholesterol >8 mmol/L (>310 mg/dL) (e.g. in familial hypercholesterolaemia) or BP ≥180/110 mmHg.
• Most other people with DM (except for young people with type 1 DM and

Without major risk factors that may be at low or moderate risk).

• Moderate CKD (GFR 30–59 mL/min/1.73 m²).
• A calculated CVD Risk Score ≥5% and <10%.

Moderate Risk

CVD Risk Score is ≥1% and <5% at 10 years. Many middle–aged subjects belong to this category

Low Risk

CVD Risk Score < 1%



  • Pharmacological

  • Non-Pharmacological

    General measures (also refer to picture number 1 above )

    Lifestyle modification for all persons with risk factors for ischaemic heart disease should be encouraged (lifestyle changes as appropriate and summarized below on table 1.0)

    Maintain ideal weight, i.e. BMI < 25 kg/m², Weight reduction in the overweight patient, i.e. BMI > 25 kg/m²,

    Reduce alcohol intake to ≤ 2 standard drinks/day for men and ≤ 1 for women on no more than 5 out of 7 days per week (1 standard drink is equivalent to 25 mL of spirits, 125 mL of wine, 340 mL of beer or sorghum beer, or 60 mL of sherry),

    Ideal healthy diet i.e. low fat, high fibre and unrefined carbohydrates, with adequate fresh fruit and vegetables.

    Exercise; regular moderate aerobic exercise, e.g. 30 minutes brisk walking 3–5 times/week (150 minutes/week) and

    Stop smoking.


Updated on,

5 Novemba 2020 09:10:43


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