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Haemolytic Anaemia

Haemolytic Anaemia
Haemolytic Anaemia
Haemolytic Anaemia
Haemolytic Anaemia


Haemolytic anaemia results from an increase in the rate of red cell destruction in the intravascular or in the reticuloendothelial system in some pathological disorders

Classification of haemolytic anaemia

I. Acquired haemolytic anaemias

• Autoimmune (warm antibody type, cold antibody)

• Haemolytic transfusion reactions
• HD
• Allograft especially marrow transplantation

Red cell Fragmentation Syndromes:
• Arterial grafts, cardiac valve
• Microangiopathic haemolytic anaemias


• March haemoglobinuria
• Infections (malaria, clostridia)
• Chemicals and physical agents
• Paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinulia

II. Hereditary Haemolytic Anaemia

Membrane disorders
• Hereditary spherocytosis
• Hereditary elliptocytosis

Metabolism disorders
• G6PD deficiency
• Pyruvate kinase deficiency

Haemoglobin disorders
• Abnormal haemoglobin such as Hb S, C, Unstable Hb

Risk Factors

Signs and symptoms

• Pallor jaundice
• Splenomegaly
• Anaemia
• Reticulocytosis
• Indirect hyperbilirubinemia

Other Clinical Features:
• The disease may occur at any age and sex
• Patient may present with symptom and features of Anaemia
• Symptoms are usually slow in onset however rapidly developing anaemia can occur
• Splenomegaly is common but no always observed
• Jaundice

Diagnostic criteria



  • Non-pharmacological

  • Pharmacological

    General Treatment:

    i. Remove the underlying cause
    ii. Blood transfusion if anaemia is severe
    iii. Plasmapheresis

    Note: After supportive treatment refer to higher health facility with adequate expertise and facilities


    • Prednisolone 1–1.5mg/kg/day (PO) for 1–3 weeks until Hb is greater than 10g/dl
    • Cyclosphophamide 60mg/m2 IV
    • Azathioprine 100–150mg/mg (PO) daily
    • Cyclosporin 2–5mg/
    • High dose immunoglobulin 400mg/kg daily IV for 5 days
    • Folic acid is 5mg (PO) daily should be given to severe cases

    Surgical Management

    • Splenectomy may be considered in those who fail to respond


Updated on,

14 Novemba 2020 11:08:07


    1. STG
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