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Typhoid Fever in Children

It is a systemic disease resulting from infection by Salmonella typhi and S.
paratyphi, serotypes A and B respectively. Infection is acquired through ingestion of contaminated food and water.

Diagnostic Criteria

  • Headache

  • Paradoxycal haemodynamic state

  • Roth spots in the periumbilical area

  • Increasing O titers



  • Widal test

  • Indirect fluorescent Vi antibody

  • ELISA IgM and IgG.

  • Blood and stool cultures



Non pharmacological Treatment


  • Encourage feeding and breastfeed if child is still breastfeeding

  • If patient has dehydration manage accordingly


Pharmacological treatment

  • Ciprofloxacin 15mg/kg PO 12 hourly for 10 days OR

  • Azithromycin 10 mg/kg PO once a day for 7 days OR

  • Cefixime 10mg/kg 12 hourly for 14 days PLUS

  • Paracetamol 15 mg/kg 8 hourly for 5 days


  • Ciprofloxacin is safe to use in children.

Updated on 14.09.2020

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  1. Tanzanian Standard treatment guideline for children 2017 edition page 84

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