top of page


Rift Valley Fever

This is a viral zoonosis that is primarily spread amongst animals by the bite of infected mosquitoes, transmitting the Rift Valley virus. Aedes mosquitoes are the main vector biting animals. Transmission to human is mainly through direct or indirect contact with blood or organs of infected animals. The virus can be transmitted to human through;

  • Handling of animal tissue during slaughtering or butchering, assisting with animal births, conducting veterinary procedures. 

  • Inoculation e.g via wound from infected knife or through contact with broken skin or through inhalation of aerosols produced during the slaughter of an infected animals. 

  • Infected mosquito.

Human become viraemic; capable of infecting mosquitoes shortly before onset of fever and for the first 3–5 days of illness. Once infected, mosquitoes remain so for life. 


Diagnostic Criteria

  • Acute febrile illness that does  not  respond  to  antibiotic or antimalarial therapy, 

  • Exhaustion, backache, muscle pains, headache (often severe), 

  • Photophobia

  • Nausea/vomiting

  • Evidence of bleeding into skin, bleeding from puncture wounds, from mucous membranes or nose, from gastrointestinal tract and unnatural bleeding from vagina

  • Clinical jaundice (3-fold increase above normal of transaminases)  



 Anti-RVF IgM ELISA antibodies or positive test on Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR)

  • FBC 

Low Hb [Hb < 8 gm/dL - Severe pallor 40 Standard Treatment Guidelines

Low platelets < 100x109 / dL (thrombocytopenia)–small skin and mucous membrane haemorrhages (petechiae) 

  • Serum Creatinine  


There is no any established course of treatment of this disease. Most of human cases are relatively mild and of short duration so will not require any specific treatment.

Updated on, 28.10.2020


1. STG page number 10-12

bottom of page