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Epuka usugu wa vimelea vya maradhi kwenye dawa

Tafiti nyingi zimefanyika kuangalia ukubwa wa tatizo la usugu wa vimelea vya maradhi kwenye dawa na zinaonyesha kuwepo na ongezeko kubwa la usugu wa vimelea vya maradhi kwenye dawa za kutibu maambukizi ya bakteria na fangasi. Tatizo hili linaweza kudhuru watu wa umri wowote na taifa lolote lile na huongeza gharama kwa wagonjwa na kukaa hospitali kwa muda mrefu.





Matumizi yasiyo sahihi ya dawa jamii ya ‘antibiotic’ na ‘antifungal’ zinazotibu magonjwa mbalimbali kama kisonono, TB, UTI, tonses, nimonia, homa ya matumbo, fangasi ukeni n.k, husababisha vimelea kuwa sugu dhidi ya dawa. Makala hii imezungumzia hali ya usugu dhidi ya matumizi yasiyo sahihi ya dawa jamii ya 'antibiotic' na 'antifungal'


Sababu za vimelea kuwa sugu


Sababu kuu zinazochangia kutokea kwa tatizo hili kama ilivyoonekana kwenye tafiti ni;

  • Kutokuwepo kwa mwongozo wa matumizi ya dawa kwa wataalamu wa afya inayofanya mtaalamu kujichagulia dawa bila kujali ni daraja gani la dawa lianze kutumika kwanza kabla ya kwenda daraja kubwa zaidi

  • Matumizi ya dawa bila kuandikiwa na daktari mwenye leseni na weledi wa dawa hizo

  • Matumizi ya dawa bila kufanyiwa vipimo kuonyesha ugonjwa uliopo

  • Kuandikiwa dawa na mtu ambaye si mtaalamu wa afya

  • Kutumia dawa bila kukamilisha dozi nzima uliyoandikiwa na mtaalamu wa afya

Mfano wa maradhi na usugu kwenye dawa ziilizokuwa zinatibu maradhi hayo awali;



Dawa ya Penicillin iliyogunduliwa mwaka 1941 imepoteza uwezo wa kutibu vimelea vya maradhi mwaka 1942 vinavyopelekea maradhi ya

  • UTI inayosababishwa na Streptococcus aureus

  • Maambukizi ya bakteria kwenye ngozi yanayosababishwa na Streptococcus aureus

  • Nimonia inayosababishwa na Streptococcus pneumonia

  • Kisonono(gono) kinachosababishwa na Neisseria gonorrhoeae


Dawa ya Amphotericin B iliyogunduliwa mwaka 1959 imepoteza uwezo wa kutibu vimelea vya maradhi mwaka 2016 vinavyopelekea maradhi ya

  • Fangasi wanaosababishwa na Candida auris


Dawa ya Azithromycin(azuma) iliyogunduliwa mwaka 1980 imepoteza uwezo wa kutibu vimelea vya maradhi mwaka 2011 vinavyopelekea maradhi ya

  • Kisonono(gono) yanayosababishwa na Neisseria gonorrhoeae


Dawa ya Ciprofloxacin iliyogunduliwa mwaka 1987 imepoteza uwezo wa kutibu vimelea vya maradhi mwaka 2007 vinavyopelekea maradhi ya

  • Kisonono(gono) yanayosababishwa na Neisseria gonorrhoeae


Dawa ya Fluconazole iliyothibitishwa na FDA mwaka 1990 imepoteza uwezo wa kutibu vimelea vya maradhi mwaka 1988 vinavyopelekea maradhi ya

  • Fangasi wanaosababishwa na fangasi aina ya Candinda na Aspergillus


Dawa ya Caspofungin iliyogunduliwa mwaka 2001 imepoteza uwezo wa kutibu vimelea vy maradhi mwaka 2004 vinavyopelekea maradhi ya

  • Fangasi wanaosababishwa na Candinda


Dawa ya Cefotaxime iliyogunduliwa mwaka 1980 imepoteza uwezo wa kutibu vimelea mwaka 1983 vinavyopelekea maradhi ya

  • UTI yanayosababishwa na Escherichia coli


Dawa zingine ambazo zina usugu kwenye vimelea vya fangasi na bakteria ni pamoja na

  • Vancomycin

  • Methicillin

  • Imipenem

  • Daptomycin

  • Ceftazidime-avibactam

  • Isoniazid

  • Streptomycin

  • Rifampicin

  • Ceftriaxone

  • Cefixime

  • n.k

Matokeo ya kutochukua hatua dhidi ya tatizo la usugu wa vimelea wa maradhi kwenye dawa


Bila kuwepo kwa hatua za haraka, dunia itaingia kwenye kipindi ambacho dawa za bakteria na fangasi ambazo zilikuwa zinasaidia maelfu ya watu wenye magonjwa mbalimbali, kutofanya kazi na kuleta vifo vingi kwa sababu ya kukosa dawa. Inakadiriwa na shirika la afya duniani ‘WHO’ kuwa ifikapo mwaka 2050, idadi ya watu watakaokufa kutokana na usugu wa vimelea kwenye dawa itafikia milioni 10 endapo hatua hazitachukuliwa kukabiliana na tatizo hili.


Mfano, ugonjwa wa Kifua kikuu (TB) unaoongoza kuua watu duniani kote, kwa sasa unaua watu zaidi ya milioni 3.5 kila mwaka katika nchi zaidi ya 100 duniani. Hii imetokana na usugu wa vimelea wa TB kwenye dawa zilizopo ambazo awali zilikuwa na uwezo wa kutibu.


Nini ufanye ili kuepuka au kujikinga na usugu wa dawa kwenye vimelea?


  • Tumia dawa endapo tu umeandikiwa na daktari aliyesajiliwa

  • Usinunue au kutumia dawa za 'antibiotic' au 'antifungal' endapo mtaalamu amekwambia huhitaji tumia dawa hizo

  • Usitumie mabaki ya dawa za 'antibiotic' au 'antifungal' au kutumia kwa pamoja dozi ya mtu mwingine

  • Tumia dozi ya dawa kwa masaa na siku ulizopangiwa na mtaalamu wa afya

  • Jikinge na maradhi mbalimbali kwa kufuata kanuni za kiafya mfano, Kunywa maji safi na salama, nawa mikono kabla ya kula, andaa chakula kwa usafi, fanya ngono salama na pata chanjo kwa wakati ili uepuke matumizi ya dawa

  • Usitumie mazao ya wanyama au ndege waliokuzwa kwa dawa za 'antibiotic' au kutumia dawa hizo kama kinga ya maradhi ya magonjwa, isipokuwa endapo walikuwa wanaumwa. Hii itasaidia kuepuka kupata vimelea sugu kutoka kwa mazao hayo

  • Penda kujisomea kuhusu mada za kiafya ili kufahamu matibabu ya nyumbani, dawa, magonjwa na kinga mbalimbali za maradhi


Kumbuka;

  • Matumizi ya dawa yasiyo sahihi hujumuisha matumizi kwa binadamu au wanyama wengine wa kufungwa

  • Unaweza kupata maambukizi ya vimelea sugu wa dawa aina fulani kutoka kwa mtu mwingine kisha ukashindwa kutibika kwa dawa inayofahamika kutibu vimelea au ugonjwa ulionao.


Rejea za mada hii;

  1. Antibiotic-resistance in Tanzania is an environmental problem. https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2020/01/200130081627.htm. Imechukuliwa 29.01.2021

  2. Pius G. Horumpende, et al. Point prevalence survey of antimicrobial use in three hospitals in North-Eastern Tanzania. https://aricjournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13756-020-00809-3. Imechukuliwa 29.01.2021

  3. Nyambura Moremi, et al. Antimicrobial resistance pattern: a report of microbiological cultures at a tertiary hospital in Tanzania. https://bmcinfectdis.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12879-016-2082-1. Imechukuliwa 29.01.2021

  4. Vijay B. Arumugham, et al. Third Generation Cephalosporins. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK549881/#. Imechukuliwa 29.01.2021

  5. Diana Faini, et al. Burden of serious fungal infections in Tanzania. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/myc.12390. Imechukuliwa 29.01.2021

  6. CDC. About Antibiotic Resistance. https://www.cdc.gov/drugresistance/about.html#. Imechukuliwa 29.01.2021

  7. WHO. Antibiotic resistance. https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/antibiotic-resistance. Imechukuliwa 29.01.2021

  8. OO Komolafe. Antibiotic resistance in bacteria - an emerging public health problem . https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3345436/. Imechukuliwa 29.01.2021

  9. Vachon M. A report presented by George Soros Open Society Institute. New York: 1999. Harvard Medical School Report Warns of World Health Threat. https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Alasdair_Macgowan/publication/275402285_Surveillance_of_antimicrobial_resistance/links/56b9b89408ae3b658a8a055f/Surveillance-of-antimicrobial-resistance.pdf. Imechukuliwa 29.01.2021

  10. Antimicrobials and Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria: A Risk to the Environment and to Public Health. https://www.mdpi.com/2073-4441/12/12/3313/pdf. Imechukuliwa 29.01.2021

  11. Lewis Marquez, et al. Prevalence and Therapeutic Challenges of Fungal Drug Resistance: Role for Plants in Drug Discovery. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7235788/. Imechukuliwa 29.01.2021

  12. Michael A. Pfaller, MD. Antifungal Drug Resistance: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Consequences for Treatment. https://www.amjmed.com/article/S0002-9343%2811%2900913-2/fulltext. Imechukuliwa 29.01.2021

  13. Dhara N. Shah, et al. Impact of Prior Inappropriate Fluconazole Dosing on Isolation of Fluconazole-Nonsusceptible Candida Species in Hospitalized Patients with Candidemia. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3370796/. Imechukuliwa 29.01.2021

  14. Ronen Ben-Ami, et al. Antibiotic Exposure as a Risk Factor for Fluconazole-Resistant Candida Bloodstream Infection. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3346668/. Imechukuliwa 29.01.2021

  15. Thomas F. Patterson, et al. Practice Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of Aspergillosis: 2016 Update by the Infectious Diseases Society of America. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4967602/. Imechukuliwa 29.01.2021

  16. David S. Perlin, et al. Update on Antifungal Drug Resistance. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s40588-015-0015-1. Imechukuliwa 29.01.2021

  17. MARTHA F. MUSHI, et all. Prevalence and factors associated with over-the-counter use of antifungal agents in Mwanza City, Tanzania. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/312667730_Prevalence_and_factor_associated_with_over-the-counter_use_of_antifungal_agents'_in_Mwanza_City_Tanzania. Imechukuliwa 29.01.2021

  18. Diana Faini, et al. Burden of serious fungal infections in Tanzania. https://core.ac.uk/download/pdf/77101878.pdf. Imechukuliwa 29.01.2021

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