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Anaphylaxis
Anaphylaxis

Anaphylaxis

Introduction

It is an acute and often life-threatening immunologic reaction, frequently heralded by scalp pruritus, diffuse erythema, urticaria, or angioedema. Bronchospasm, laryngealedema, hyperperistalsis, hypotension, and cardiac arrhythmia may occur. Antiobitics (especially penicillins), other drugs, and radiographic contrast agents are the most common causes of serious anaphylactic reactions.

Hymenoptera stings are the next most frequent cause, followed by ingestion of crustaceans and other food allergens.

Signs & symptoms

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Diagnostic criteria

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Investigation

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Treatment

  • Non-Pharmacological treatment

    If acute (existing for less than 3 months), exclude drug reactions (e.g. penicillin), or infection
  • Pharmacological

    • Chlorpheniramine (PO) 4–16 mg once at night for 7–10 days
    OR
    • Promethazine (PO): Adults, 25–50 mg at night for 7–10 days
    OR
    • Cetrizine (PO) 10mg once daily for 7–10 days
    OR
    • Loratadine (PO) 10mg once daily for 7–10 days

    Note: Warn about drowsiness. If no improvement after 1 month or the problem becomes chronic, refer to higher level facility for possible specialist care with combination therapy (H1, H2 inhibitors).

Prevention

If acute (existing for less than 3 months), exclude drug reactions (e.g. penicillin), or infection

Updated on,

3 Novemba 2020 12:24:20

References

    1.STG
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