top of page

Rejea mbalimbali

Kisukari                                                                            Rudi kwenye mada

  1. Tessier D, Meneilly GS. Diabetes management in the elderly. In: Gerstein HC, ed. Evidence-based diabetes care. Hamilton: BC Decker Inc., 2001, pg. 370–9.

  2. Lipska KJ, De Rekeneire N, Van Ness PH, et al. Identifying dysglycemic states in older adults: Implications of the emerging use of hemoglobin A1c. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2010;95:5289–95.

  3. Crandall J, Schade D, Ma Y, et al. The influence of age on the effects of lifestyle modification and metformin in prevention of diabetes. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2006;61:1075–81.

  4. Chiasson JL, Josse RG, Gomis R, et al. Acarbose for prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus: The STOP-NIDDM randomised trial. Lancet 2002;359:2072–7.

  5. DREAM (Diabetes REduction Assessment with ramipril and rosiglitazone Medication) Trial Investigators, Gerstein HC, Yusuf S, et al. Effect of rosiglitazone on the frequency of diabetes in patients with impaired glucose tolerance or impaired fasting glucose: A randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2006;368:1096– 105.

  6. Inzucchi SE, Viscoli CM, Young LH, et al. Pioglitazone prevents diabetes in patients with insulin resistance and cerebrovascular disease. Diabetes Care 2016;39:1684–92.

  7. Kronsbein P, Jorgens V, Muhlhauser I, et al. Evaluation of a structured treatment and teaching programme on non-insulin-dependent diabetes. Lancet 1988;2:1407–11.

  8. Wilson W, Pratt C. The impact of diabetes education and peer support upon weight and glycemic control of elderly persons with NonInsulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (NIDDM). Am J Public Health 1987;77:634–5.

  9. Braun AK, Kubiak T, Kuntsche J, et al. SGS: A structured treatment and teaching programme for older patients with diabetes mellitus–a prospective randomised controlled multi-centre trial. Age Ageing 2009;38:390–6.

  10.  Fagan PJ, Schuster AB, Boyd C, et al. Chronic care improvement in primary care: Evaluation of an integrated pay-for-performance and practice-based care coordination program among elderly patients with diabetes. Health Serv Res 2010;45:1763–82.

  11. McGovern MP, Williams DJ, Hannaford PC, et al. Introduction of a new incentive and target-based contract for family physicians in the UK: Good for older patients with diabetes but less good for women? Diabet Med 2008;25:1083–9.

  12. Maar MA, Manitowabi D, Gzik D, et al. Serious complications for patients, care providers and policy makers: Tackling the structural violence of First Nations people living with diabetes in Canada. Int Indigenous Policy J 2011;21: Article 6.

  13.  Jacklin KM, Henderson RI, Green ME, et al. Health care experiences of Indigenous people living with type 2 diabetes in Canada. CMAJ 2017;189:E106– 12.

  14. Chandler MJ, Lalonde C. Cultural continuity as a protective factor against suicide in First Nations Youth. Horizons 2008;10:68–72.

  15. Oster RT, Grier A, Lightning R, Mayan MJ, Toth EL. Cultural continuity, traditional Indigenous language, and diabetes in Alberta First Nations: A mixed methods study. Int J Equity Health 2014;13:92. doi:10.1186/s12939-014- 0092-4.

  16. Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada. Truth and reconcilliation commission of Canada: calls to action. Winnipeg, MB: Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada 2012. 2015. trcinstitution/File/2015/Findings/Calls_to_Action_English2.pdf.

  17.  Yu CH, Zinman B. Type 2 diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance in aboriginal populations: A global perspective. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2007;78:159– 70.

  18. Gracey M, King M. Indigenous health part 1: Determinants and disease patterns. Lancet 2009;374:65–75.

  19. Chronic Disease Surveillance and Monitoring Division, Centre for Chronic Disease Prevention and Control. Diabetes in Canada: Facts and figures from a public health perspective. Ottawa, ON: Public Health Agency of Canada, 2011 -figures-faits-chiffres-2011/index-eng.php.

  20. Turin TC, Saad N, Jun M, et al. Lifetime risk of diabetes among first nations and non-first nations people. CMAJ 2016;188:1147–53.

  21. Singer J, Putulik Kidlapik C, Martin B, et al. Food consumption, obesity and abnormal glycaemic control in a Canadian Inuit community. Clin Obes 2014;4:316– 23.

Rejea za Demataitiz                                                                                   Rudi kwenye mada

  1. ULY CLINIC- pumu ya ngozi

  2. Oxford kamusi ya kitiba ya kizungu.

  3. Atopic dermatitis. (2016).

  4. Dyshidrotic eczema. (n.d.).

  5. Neurodermatitis. (n.d.).

  6. Nummular dermatitis. (n.d.).

  7. Wolff K, et al. Eczema/dermatitis. In: Fitzpatrick's Color Atlas and Synopsis of Clinical Dermatology. 8th ed. New York, N.Y.: McGraw-Hill Education; 2017. Imetembelewa April 29, 2019.

  8. Goldsmith LA, et al., eds. Atopic dermatitis. In: Fitzpatrick's Dermatology in General Medicine. 9th ed. New York, N.Y.: McGraw-Hill Education; 2019. Imetembelewa Imetembelewa March  10, 2019.

  9. Eichenfield LF, et al. Guidelines of care for the management of atopic dermatitis: Sura ya  1. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology. 2014;70:338.

  10. Eichenfield LF, et al. Current guidelines for the evaluation and management of atopic dermatitis: A comparison of the Joint Task Force Practice Parameter and American Academy of Dermatology guidelines. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. 2017;139:S49.

  11. Rice bran. Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database. March  10, 2020

  12. Tea tree oil. Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database. Imetembelewa March  10, 2020

  13. Aloe. Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database. Imetembelewa March  10, 2020

  14. Warner KJ. Allscripts EPSi. Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. Imetembelewa March  10, 2020

  15. Ash S, et al. Comparison of bleach, acetic acid, and other topical anti-infective treatments in pediatric atopic dermatitis: A retrospective cohort study on antibiotic exposure. Pediatric Dermatology. 2019;36:115.

  16. Eczema and bathing. National Eczema Association. March  10, 2020

  17. Ibler KS, et al. Hand eczema: Prevalence and risk factors of hand eczema in a population of 2,274 health care workers. Contact Dermatitis. 2012;67:200.

  18. Over the counter. National Eczema Association. Imetembelewa March  10, 2020

  19. Nguyen HL, et al. Contact dermatitis to medications and skin products. Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology. 2019;56:41.

  20. Nguyen GH, et al. Climate change and atopic dermatitis: Is there a link. International Journal of Dermatology. 2019;58:279.

  21. Stasis dermatitis. (n.d.).


Rejea za Maumivu ya kifua                                                                  Rudi kwenye mada

  1. Tintinalli JE, et al. Chest pain. In: Tintinalli's Emergency Medicine: A Comprehensive Study Guide. Chapisho la 8. New York, N.Y.: The McGraw Hill Companies; 2016. Imepitiwa maachi 10.2020

  2. Yelland MJ. Outpatient evaluation of the adult with chest pain. Imepitiwa maachi 10.2020

  3. Walls RM, et al., eds. Chest pain. In: Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice. Chapisho la 8. Philadelphia, Pa.: Elsevier; 2018. Imepitiwa maachi 10.2020

  4. What is a heart attack? American Heart Association. Attack_UCM_001092_SubHomePage.jsp. Imepitiwa maachi 10.2020

  5. McKean SC, et al. Chest pain. In: Principles and Practice of Hospital Medicine. New York, N.Y: The McGraw-Hill Companies; 2012. Imepitiwa maachi 10.2020

  6. What is angina? National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Imepitiwa maachi 10.2020

  7. Aortic dissection. Society for Vascular Surgery.  Imepitiwa maachi 10.2020

  8. Lopez-Jimenez F (expert opinion). Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. Imepitiwa maachi 10.2020

  9. Echocardiography. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Imepitiwa maachi 10.2020

  10. Heart attack. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Imepitiwa maachi 10.2020

  11. Light RW. Primary spontaneous pneumothorax in adults. Imepitiwa maachi 10.2020

  12. Riggin ER. Allscripts EPSi. Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. Imepitiwa maachi 10.2020

  13. Pulmonary hypertension – high blood pressure in the heart-to-lung system. American Heart Association. Imepitiwa maachi 10.2020

  14. Hollander JE, et al. Evaluation of the adult with chest pain in the emergency department. Imepitiwa maachi 10.2020

Vidole rungu                                                                                    Rejea kwenye mada

  1. Ngan V, et al. (2016). Hypertrophic osteoarthropathy and digital clubbing

  2. Asbestosis. (n.d.). Imetembelewa machi 2.2020

  3. Clubbing of fingers. (n.d.). Imetembelewa machi 2.2020

  4. Mayo Clinic Staff. (2019). Lung Imetembelewa machi 2.2020

  5. Pulmonary fibrosis. (n.d.). Imetembelewa machi 2.2020

  6. Sarkar M, et al. (2012). Digital clubbing. DOI: 10.4103/0970-2113.102824


  8. Medical problems in dentistry toleo la 6. na Crispian Scully.

  9. Bronchiectasis. (n.d.).

Koma- Nusu kifo                                                                                       Rudi kwenye mada


  2. Medical problems in dentistry toleo la 6. na Crispian Scully n.k

  3. The Merck Manual Professional Edition. Imepitiwa 10.03.2020

  4. Edlow JA, et al. Diagnosis of reversible causes of coma. The Lancet. 2014; 384:2064.

  5. Rosengart A, et al. Coma. In: Critical Care Medicine: Principles of Diagnosis and Management in the Adult. Philadelphia, Pa.: Elsevier; 2014. Imepitiwa 10.03.2020

  6. Young GB. Stupor and coma in adults. Imepitiwa 10.03.2020

  7. Daroff RB, et al. Bradley's Neurology in Clinical Practice. 6th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders Elsevier; 2012. Imepitiwa 10.03.2020

  8. NINDS coma information page. National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. Imepitiwa 10.03.2020

  9. Marx JA, et al. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice. 8th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Mosby Elsevier; 2014. Imepitiwa 10.03.2020

  10. Rabinstein AA (expert opinion). Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. Imepitiwa 10.03.2020

Rejea za UKIMWI                                                                                      Rudi kwenye mada

  1. Sax PE, et al. The natural history and clinical features of HIV infection in adults and adolescents. Imechukuliwa 2.03.2020

  2. Ferri FF. Human immunodeficiency virus. In: Ferri's Clinical Advisor 2020. Elsevier; 2020. Imechukuliwa 2.03.2020

  3. Hardy WD, et al., eds. HIV testing and counseling. In: Fundamentals of HIV Medicine 2019 Edition. American Academy of HIV Medicine. Oxford University Press; 2019.

  4. AIDS and opportunistic infections. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Imechukuliwa 2.03.2020

  5. Jameson JL, et al., eds. Human immunodeficiency virus disease: AIDS and related disorders. In: Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine. 20th ed. The McGraw-Hill Companies; 2018. Imechukuliwa 2.03.2020

  6. What are HIV and AIDS? Imechukuliwa 2.03.2020

  7. Sax PE. Acute and early HIV infection: Clinical manifestations and diagnosis. Imechukuliwa 2.03.2020

  8. Pollack TM, et al. Primary care of the HIV-infected adult. Imechukuliwa 2.03.2020

  9. St. John's Wort. Natural Medicines. Imechukuliwa 2.03.2020

  10. HIV Basics. PrEP. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Accessed Imechukuliwa 2.03.2020

  11. HIV treatment as prevention. Imechukuliwa 2.03.2020

  12. Who should get tested? Imechukuliwa 2.03.2020

  13. About HIV/AIDS. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Accessed Dec. 6, 2019.

  14. HIV Basics. PEP. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Imechukuliwa 2.03.2020

  15. ULY CLINIC doctor. Vihatarishi vya Maambukizi ya VVU Imechukuliwa 2.03.2020

  16. Testing overview. Imechukuliwa 2.03.2020

  17. HIV/AIDS: The basics. AIDSinfo. Imechukuliwa 2.03.2020




Rejea Seliak                       Rejea mada dawa,

  1. Coeliac disease: recognition, assessment and management. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Clinical guideline 20. September 2015.

  2. Ciclitira PJ. Management of celiac disease in adults. Imechukuliwa March 12, 2020

  3. Gluten free diet: Building the grocery list. American Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Imechukuliwa March 12, 2020

  4. Merck Manual Professional Version. Imechukuliwa March 12, 2020.

  5. Definition & facts for celiac disease. National Institute of Diabetes, Digestive and Kidney Diseases. Imechukuliwa March 12, 2020.

Rejea za Saratani ya shingo ya kizazi                              Rudi kwenye mada ya saratani ya shingo ya kizazi

  1. WHO, Global joint programme on cervical cancer pdf, 466kb at Imechukuliwa 16.03.2020

  2. WHO,  Comprehensive cervical cancer control: a guide to essential practice IARC resources on cervical cancer screening at Imechukuliwa 16.03.2020

  3. Lobo RA, et al. Comprehensive Gynecology. 7th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Elsevier; 2017. Imechukuliwa 15.02.2020

  4. Niederhuber JE, et al., eds.  Abeloff's Clinical Oncology. 6th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Elsevier; 2020. Imechukuliwa 15.02.2020

  5. Cervical cancer. Plymouth Meeting, Pa.: National Comprehensive Cancer Network. Accessed June 14, 2019.

  6. ULY CLINIC maswali kwa daktari wa kinamama

  7. Palliative care. Plymouth Meeting, Pa.: National Comprehensive Cancer Network. Imechukuliwa 15.02.2020

Rejea za Kung'atwa nyoka                                                   Rudi kwenye mada

  1.  Merck Manual Professional Version. Imechukuliwa 17.03.2020

  2. Papadakis MA, et al., eds. Poisoning. In: Current Medical Diagnosis & Treatment 2019. 58th ed. New York, N.Y.: McGraw-Hill Education; 2020 Imechukuliwa 17.03.2020

  3. Seifert SA. Evaluation and management of Crotalinae (rattlesnake, water moccasin [cottonmouth], or copperhead) bites in the United States. Imechukuliwa 17.03.2020

  4. Venomous snakes. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Imechukuliwa 17.03.2020

  5. Venomous snakes: Types of venomous snakes. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Imechukuliwa 17.03.2020

Rejea za dalili za UTI  kwa watu wazima                                                 Rejea nyuma

  1. Wein aj, et al., eds. Infections of the urinary tract. In: campbell-walsh urology. 11th ed. Philadelphia, pa.: elsevier; 2016. Https:// Imechukuliwa 17.03.2020

  2. Ferri ff. Urinary tract infection. In: ferri's clinical advisor 2017. Philadelphia, pa.: elsevier; 2017. Https:// Imechukuliwa 17.03.2020

  3. Bladder infection (urinary tract infection—uti) in adults. National institute of diabetes and digestive and kidney diseases. Https:// information/urologic-diseases/bladder-infection-uti-in-adults. Imechukuliwa 17.03.2020

  4. Urinary tract infections (utis). The american college of obstetricians and gynecologists. Https:// Imechukuliwa 17.03.2020

  5. [Guideline] Gupta K, Hooton TM, Naber KG, et al. International clinical practice guidelines for the treatment of acute uncomplicated cystitis and pyelonephritis in women: A 2010 update by the Infectious Diseases Society of America and the European Society for Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Clin Infect Dis. 2011 Mar. 52(5):e103-20. [Medline][Full Text].

  6. [Guideline] Wagenlehner FM, Schmiemann G, Hoyme U, Fünfstück R, Hummers-Pradier E, Kaase M, et al. [National S3 guideline on uncomplicated urinary tract infection: recommendations for treatment and management of uncomplicated community-acquired bacterial urinary tract infections in adult patients]. Urologe A. 2011 Feb. 50(2):153-69. [Medline][Full Text].

Rejea za Dalili za homa ya Ini                                                             Rudi kwenye Mada                           

  1. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2016). Hepatitis B and the vaccine (shot) to prevent it: Fact sheet for parents [Fact sheet]. Imechukuliwa 17.03.2020

  2. Cropley A, et al. (2017). The use of immunosuppression in autoimmune hepatitis: A current literature review. DOI:

  3. Heidelbaugh JJ, et al. (n.d.). Cirrhosis and chronic liver failure: Part II. Complications and treatment.

  4. Heidrich B, et al. (2013). Treatment options for hepatitis delta virus infection [Abstract]. DOI: 10.1007/s11908-012-0307-z




Rejea maumivu ya uke                                                                       rudi kwenye mada

  1. Kingsberg S, et al. Approach to the woman with sexual pain. Imechukuliwa 17.04.2020

  2. Frequently asked questions. Gynecologic problems FAQ020. When sex is painful. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. 17.04.2020

  3. Dyspareunia. Merck Manual Professional Version. Imechukuliwa 17.04.2020

  4. Barbieri R. Differential diagnosis of sexual pain in women. Imechukuliwa 17.04.2020

  5. Kellerman RD, et al. Female sexual dysfunction. In: Conn's Current Therapy 2019. Elsevier; 2019. Imechukuliwa 17.04.2020

  6. Faubion SS, et al. Genitourinary syndrome of menopause: Management strategies for the clinician. Mayo Clinic 

  7. Ospemifene oral. Facts & Comparisons eAnswers. 17.04.2020

  8. Sauer U, et al. Efficacy of intravaginal dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) for symptomatic women in the peri- or postmenopausal phase. Maturitas. 2018; doi:10.1016/j.maturitas.2018.07.016.

Rejea za ualbino                                                                            rejea kwenye mada

  1. Wright TS. The genodermatoses. Imechukuliwa March 24, 2020

  2. Oculocutaneous albinism. National Organization for Rare Disorders. Imechukuliwa March 24, 2020

  3. Albinism. American College of Osteopathic Dermatology. Imechukuliwa March 24, 2020

  4. Albinism. Merck Manual Professional Version. Imechukuliwa March 24, 202

  5. National Library of Medicine. Oculocutaneous albinism. Genetics Home Reference. Imechukuliwa March 24, 2020

  6. Summers CG, et al. Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome. Imechukuliwa March 24, 2020

  7. Stiehm ER. Chediak-Higashi syndrome. Imechukuliwa March 24, 2020

  8. Summers CG, et al. Oculocutaneous albinism. Imechukuliwa March 24, 2020

Kifua kuuma
Vidole rungu
Seliak rejea
saratani ya hingo ya kizazi
Nyoka kung'atwa
UTI watu wazima dalili
Homa ya Ini dalili
maumivu ya uke
bottom of page